Our team based in Seattle conducted a comprehensive review including evolving trends in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This summary covers key decision points, including recommended work-up during initial diagnosis, treatment options for MCC when it’s in one place or has spread, management of recurrent MCC, and new treatments that are showing promise with fewer side effects and good results. This review gives valuable information on how to handle MCC overall and emphasizes new methods that are effective and less toxic on patients.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin malignancy with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence. The recent discovery of Merkel cell polyomavirus has revolutionized our understanding of MCC pathogenesis. Viral oncoproteins appear to play a critical role in tumor progression and are expressed in the majority of MCC tumors. Virus-specific humoral and cellular immune responses are detectable in MCC patients and are linked to the natural history of the disease. Despite persistent expression of immunogenic viral proteins, however, MCC tumors are able to evade the immune system. Understanding of the mechanisms of immune evasion employed by MCC tumors is rapidly increasing and offers opportunities for development of rational immune therapies to improve patient outcomes. Here we review recent discoveries in MCC with a special focus on the pathogenic role of Merkel cell polyomavirus and the immunobiology of this virus-associated disease.