Our team based in Seattle conducted a comprehensive review including evolving trends in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This summary covers key decision points, including recommended work-up during initial diagnosis, treatment options for MCC when it’s in one place or has spread, management of recurrent MCC, and new treatments that are showing promise with fewer side effects and good results. This review gives valuable information on how to handle MCC overall and emphasizes new methods that are effective and less toxic on patients.
Removal of the parametrial fat pads (partial lipectomy) from female SKH-1 mice fed a high-fat diet inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis, but this was not observed in mice fed a low-fat chow diet. Partial lipectomy in high-fat-fed mice decreased the number of keratoacanthomas and squamous cell carcinomas per mouse by 76 and 79%, respectively, compared with sham-operated control mice irradiated with UVB for 33 wk. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that partial lipectomy increased caspase 3 (active form) positive cells by 48% in precancerous epidermis away from tumors, by 68% in keratoacanthomas, and by 224% in squamous cell carcinomas compared with sham-operated control mice. In addition, partial lipectomy decreased cell proliferation away from tumors and in tumors. RT-PCR analysis for adipokines revealed that mRNAs for TIMP1, MCP1, and SerpinE1 (proinflammatory/antiapoptotic cytokines) in the parametrial fat pads of sham-operated control mice were 54- to 83-fold higher than levels in compensatory fat that returned after surgery in partially lipectomized mice at the end of the tumor study. Feeding mice high-fat diets for 2 wk increased levels of TIMP1 and other adipokines in serum and epidermis, and these increases were inhibited by removal of the parametrial fat pads. Our results are a unique demonstration that surgical removal of a specific tissue fat results in inhibition of carcinogenesis in obese mice. This inhibition was associated with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation in tumors and in precancerous areas away from tumors.